Adapting to a Changing Environment

Organization: 
Nema Foundation, Guludo beach lodge

Entry Overview

General Info
Nicole
Helgason
Email : 
dive@guludo.com
Organization Address: 

Rua Malatenba, BOX 103
Guludo, Cabo Delgado
Mozambique
Problem
Size: 

Local population between 6000-7000, primary resource users up to 46% in some villages

Major Occupations: 
Guludo Bay 13km, Rolas 3km, Distance between 4 villages 20km
Local resources the community depends on, and for what purpose: 
Artisanal fisheries and subsistence farming
Local threats to resources: 
Coral reefs, artisanal fisheries, tourism - livelihood, food security
Climate Hazards: 
Coral bleaching and reduced genetic diversity of coral due to climate change, fisheries decline, loss of livelihood, loss of habitat
Level of exposure to these hazards: 
coral bleaching - high level of uncertainty (Sources) Edwards, A.J. (ed.) (2010). Reef Rehabilitation Manual. Coral Reef Targeted Research & Capacity Building for Management Program: St Lucia, Australia. ii + 166 pp. IUCN (2004) Managing Marine Protected Areas: A Toolkit for the Western Indian Ocean. IUCN Eastern African Regional Programme, Nairobi, Kenya, xii + 172 pp. Marshall, P. and Schuttenberg, H. (2006) A Reef Manager?s Guide to Coral Bleaching. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Townsville, Australia. x + 163 pp. Nema Foundation (2008). Household surveys of three villages, Gululdo Mozamique
Level of sensitivity: 
High level of exposure - (Coral reef at Rolas island marine sanctuary, Quirimbas National Park, Mozambique) Vibrant coral reefs fringe the shores of the Rolas island marine sanctuary. Nearly within arms reach at low tide, these reefs and the communities they support are at a high risk to the effects of climate change. Loss of habitat, loss of genetic diversity, fisheries decline and loss of livelihood are at stake.
Level of adaptive capacity: 
High level of sensitivity - The coral reefs at Rolas island protect life in Guludo bay. Rolas is a small island (3km�) belonging to the "kimwani" fishermen of Guludo bay. In this region up to 46% of households in (Guludo, Ningia, Naunde and Lumuawama) identify fishing as their primary source of employment (Nema 2008). Fishermen spend on average 5 hours a day catching small reef fish for $10-12 dollars a day. Rolas island and the communities of Guludo are highly sensitive to the impacts of climate change. Fishermen making the 8km journey to Rolas benefits from a "spill-over" fisheries, drying fish and octopus. On their trips fishermen are able to make upwards of $150 y returning to sell their goods inland. Fishermen in the area rely on the ability to generate extra income through drying and selling fish at Rolas, and a mass bleaching event would put considerable stress on an already heavily fished area. Without this important island reef habitat we expect to see considerable decline and vulnerability in local fisheries resources and traditions.
Solution
Describe Your Solution: 

In Guludo, watching fishermen set sail at sunrise, you can feel that here fishing is more than a way of life; it is a lifeline for the communities survival. In 2008 household surveys were completed by the Nema Foundation, data were collected from Guludo, Ningia and Naunde villages including main occupation of the household, name, age, sex and literacy including highest level of education completed for each of the household members. Of the 4103 people surveyed fishing and farming were found to be the two largest sources of income in the area. The importance of fishing for livelihood and food security is reflected in the low diversity of employment opportunities in the region. A secondary survey to develop a more comprehensive understanding of local fisheries, benefits and costs with a focus on tourism is currently being developed. Community Consultation Since day one discussions with communities has been the first step. Climate change adaptation coral gardens fit into a larger 4 year coastal resource management proposal for Guludo Bay, which focuses first on community consultation and roundtable discussions. The creation of a shellfish aquaculture for women, and lobster houses to discourage a culture of over harvesting are two such projects communities have expressed as important. Governance Rolas is 1 or 28 island of the Quirimbas Archipelago, part of the Quirimbas National Park. The essence of current management agreements within the Park is one of co-management, with local communities taking management and monitoring responsibility while sharing in Park benefits and participating in decision making processes. We want to ensure communities have the tools and skills to participate in responsible conservation and management.

Results
Ecological Costs: 
A household that has diversified sources of income and supplementary livelihood options will likely have higher adaptive capacity to impacts of climate change than those that do not. Through the diversification of employment in Guludo, communities are bet
Ecological Benefit: 
In the event of a mass bleaching event after the establishment of new reef transplants, current levels of diversity could decrease leaving only the most tolerant species.
Economic Indicators used to measure benefit: 

- Increase buffering to climate change - Addition of complex reef habitat for juvenile fish - Preserve genetic and biological diversity

Community/Social Cost: 
- Percent measurement of growth at nurseries - Bi-monthly percent survivorship measurements after deployment - PADI Project aware coral and ReefCheck monitoring
Community/Social Benefit: 
Although the coral reef solution has no great social or community cost, the greater coastal management plan it fits into, could yield conflict between different fishermen type, spear and line, if species restrictions were placed in Guludo bay. We hope to mitigate all social costs by fully enabling communities to make their own decisions and develop their own solutions to avoid future conflicts.
Community/Social Indicators used to measure benefit: 
- Creation of new employment opportunities - Increased marine conservation awareness - Capacity to participate in Quirimbas National Park
Economic Cost: 

Household and sector surveys to measure: - Number of direct employment in coral and coastal management projects - Number of volunteers participating in reef work - Number of fishermen attending workshops - Percent of populations aware of Nema marine programs

Economic Benefit: 

No-take enforcement of Rolas is already on going with one permanent resident paid by the Quirimbas Park, costs for this project will therefore include: - Volunteers time and management training costs $500 per month, - Nursery construction x2 $300 - Artificial dome construction x5 $500

Ecological Indicators used to measure benefit: 

- Direct local employment in Nema coastal management and coral rehabilitation projects - Economic spill-over benefits in local fisheries resulting from a healthy marine environment - Diversity of employment, developing local adaptive capacity and community ownership.

What were/are the challenges your community faced in implementing this solution?: 

- Household surveys to measure the diversity of employment in the region - Volunteer and staff questionnaires to asses learned knowledge and job satisfaction

Action
Describe the community-based process used to develop the solution including tools and processes used: 

The communities of Guludo bay have little options for employment, low education, limited access to electricity, and no running water; it is time to build greater adaptive capacity. Over the past 6 years the Nema foundation has implemented several successful terestrial projects working WITH communities. Nema focuses on education and sustainable poverty reduction, enabling rural communities to free themselves from poverty. We are invested in developing resilient communities for the long term, understanding the importants of sustainability through education and local ownership. The Nema foundation is based within the Guludo Beach Lodge, a 9-bedroom eco lodge run by the community in Guludo bay. The lodge provides training and direct employment for 43 local staff. The lodge has a PADI diving center and is fully equipped for all of the project logistical and scuba requirements. The project will be lead by Guludo's marine conservation and dive instructor, Nicole Helgason. Our lives are with the communities and we are committed to providing them with the knowledge and training needed to adapt quickly in a changing world.

Climate hazard of concern: 
In this multidimensional solution niche environments are created between communities, tourism, scuba diving and conservation. By developing these connections we create new opportunities while protecting vulnerable ecosystems. Healthy coral reefs create im
How does your solution reduce the exposure of and buffer/protect the ecosystem affected?: 

Coral bleaching and acidification

How does your solution reduce the sensitivity of the ecosystem affected?: 

Our solution will help buffer coral reefs around Rolas island. Our project solution includes a climate adaptation coral nursery, coral deployment site at Rolas island and artificial "dome" reefs within the Rolas marine sanctuary. - Coral nurseries will be stocked with thermally tolerance coral species grown for 12-15 months and then deployed at degraded or vulnerable reef patches around Rolas. Over time this solution will help rebuild a robust network of climate resistance corals at Rolas reducing environmental exposure. - Artificial dome reefs will be stocked with a high diversity of coral species as a means to protect biodiversity. This solution will also help safeguard genetic diversity, reduce reef exposure to rising ocean temperatures, and increase spill-over benefits through the creation of additional marine habitat.

How has your solution increased the capacity of the ecosystem to adapt to potential climate changes?: 

These complementary solutions reduce sensitivity by strengthening existing systems. A single fixed rope coral nursery has the capacity to rear 1000 coral fragment per year which can be to be transplanted to four 25m� patches of damaged or vulnerable reef. Species in each nursery will be selected from the shallowest reef area with the intention to rebuild a resilient reef system with thermally tolerant species of coral. Artificial "dome" reefs 1-2m in diameter will create an artificial reef system at the western point of Rolas reef. Dome will be 5-7m deep depending on tides. These domes will be stocked with a diversity of corals to protect rare genetic types.

How does your solution reduce the exposure of and buffer/protect the communities affected?: 

Our solution will continue monitoring the environmental impacts of climate change though reef monitoring, and knowledge mobilization while, locals will be trained to monitor the reef and encouraged to develop innovative adaptation solutions for the future.

How does your solution reduce the sensitivity of the communities affected?: 

This project will be run through the Nema foundation a UK registered NGO working to enable rural communities to free themselves from poverty in Northern Mozambique. The project will be lead by a coastal expert, Nicole Helgason and will create direct employment opportunities for local staff. The coral garden and artificial reef project will provide alternative livelihood opportunities and diversity of meaningful employment in a region where fishing and subsistence farming employ 70-90% of the local population (Nema 2008). The aim of coral resilience at Rolas reef is to protect bio-diversity while building local capacity for community-based leadership. The project will draw upon Nema scholarship recipients who are graduating secondary school encouraging them to continue their education in a culture of sustainable conservation. The reef project will be an education tool for local communities promoting the importance of conservation. The Nema foundation is a partner charity of the Guludo Beach Lodge, and PADI scuba training will be encouraged and provided through the lodge facilities for local community members.

How has your solution increased the capacity of local communities to adapt to potential climate changes?: 

Communities in Guludo are reliant on a productive healthy environment. Our solution reduces sensitivity by giving people the skills and tools they need to adapt and build resilient futures.

Scale
Can this solution be replicated elsewhere?: 

- Lack of funding for building materials and project coordination. - Low levels of education and subsistence lifestyle which do not encourage a culture of conservation.

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