310 ultra poor & ethnic/indigenous vulnerable communities of Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, Eastern Nepal
Only 310 households were taken of the total beneficiaries of the Koshi tappu
Agriculture and sustenance fishing
Local resources the community depends on, and for what purpose:
Wetland resources such as fish, edible plants, snails, crabs etc
Local threats to resources:
Over harvesting of wetland resources
Deforestation in the upstream leading to siltation, and deteriorating quality of water and higher temperature causing the loss of wetland bodies and decrease in quantity of wetland products
Level of exposure to these hazards:
High level of exposure eventually effecting the livelihood of the vulnerable ethnic/indigenous fisher flocks and other indigenous wetland dependent communities whose livelihoods are directly dependent on wetlands
Level of sensitivity:
Especially in countries like ours, where densely populated vulnerable communities reside along the side of the river and large wetlands, have been creating water related problems such as pollution and over extraction of sand and gravels. Consequently, that will have long term impacts on the resources and local livelihood that are dependent on resources. Climate change impacts are more severe to the poor and marginalized communities residing in vulnerable and critical wetlands and watersheds of Nepal. Higher sensitivity and higher exposure to these wetland dependent communities have been studied based on livelihood vulnerability index.
Level of adaptive capacity:
The study found the adaptive capacity index-high because the sub-components such as socio-dempgraphic profile, livelihood strategies, social networks, accessibility and coping strategy more favorable. Wider opportunities of income generation, a diverse crop base and a wide range of livelihood opportunities the communities adopt to.