Climate hazard of concern:
Sea surface temperature rise
How does your solution reduce the exposure of and buffer/protect the ecosystem affected?:
Ten years ago, AGCA Community is the mostly feared fishing village in Tinambac, Philippines because people here were perceived to be as outlaws. Aside from occurrences of unsolved crimes, it was a haven of dynamite fishers and illegal fish traders. MPA was established. Policy was made and environmental education was conducted. But still people continue with their old practices. In addition, the communities were also experiencing coastal erosion by 2-3 meter/decade. This receding of coastline is also happening along the beach/coast line in Partido. Increase sea surface temperature hastens thermal expansion hence experiences coastal flooding and sea level rise. The community is highly vulnerable in terms of Socio ? Economic (SEA) parameters. This is due to decreasing fish catch and limited livelihood activities at the site. Therefore, it is imperative to strengthen fisheries laws (with combination of soft and hard enforcement; diversify livelihood activities in the site; and continue with the protection of coral reefs and mangrove forest.Exposure to strong waves and storm surge was minimized by protecting the coral reefs and maintain good stands of mangrove forest. They make use of natural wave breakers. Coastal erosion was minimized by employing sloping rocks along the shoreline.
How does your solution reduce the sensitivity of the ecosystem affected?:
The solution resulted to about 10% (from 29.3 to 38) increase in Hard Coral cover inside MPA. This positive change can be attributed to the threat reduction from dynamite blasting and cyanide fishing and presence of active law enforcers, a result of pride campaign activities. Although coral cover has not yet recovered significantly, fishes have already started to come back to the core zones where they are safe from extraction. More importantly, fishes observed in the MPA were able to grow to their large mature sizes. The fish biomass inside the MPA has significantly increased from 32.8 MT/km2 to 55.6 MT/km2 from 2011 to 2012 (Figure 3. 3). This puts AGCA in a very high category in terms of fish biomass according to Naï¿½ola et al., (2006). In contrast, fish biomass has declined outside the MPA, where fishing is allowed. This underscores the benefits of protection to reef-associated fishes in the MPA.
How has your solution increased the capacity of the ecosystem to adapt to potential climate changes?:
Strictly enforced MPA can result to healthy corals and more fish. MPAs strengthened the ?immune system? of the sea to become more resilient to the changing climate. It enhances the ability of corals to recovery from bleaching. It also improves ability of fish to cope from stresses by providing a more secure and comfortable refuge zone. Maintaining mangrove forests also help in reducing sedimentation and coastal erosion.
How does your solution reduce the exposure of and buffer/protect the communities affected?:
Conservation of coral reefs and mangrove forest protect the communities from exposure to the hazards.
How does your solution reduce the sensitivity of the communities affected?:
The solution reduces the sensitivity of the community affected through its incentive program. The local chief executive supports 5 deputized bantay-dagat, 3 bantay-bakawan, 2 bantay-baybayon. The local government increase the budget for the construction of guardhouse from PhP 150,000 to 650,000.00 to make it typhoon proof. They provided raincoat, flashlight, and cellphone with hotline number. They helped in spreading the message that the sanctuary is owned by community. It is their legacy to their children. There was also a billboard, wherein the community can refer as to where the NTZ was located. Regular patrolling and guarding was in placed. Regular mancom meeting was held monthly. There was a regular recording in the logbook. As a result compressor fishing was stopped and poaching inside MPA was reduced. There were also capacity program were local people attend a values formation and skills enhancement trainings offered. They will be the new breed of community residents to lead in the sanctuary related activities, assist the PO and LGU in managing and enforcing the sanctuary.
How has your solution increased the capacity of local communities to adapt to potential climate changes?:
Before the establishment of MPA almost 80% of local fishers are engaged in illegal and unsustainable fishing practices. Community participation is needed to strengthen its enforcement and governance infrastructures and get 100% community buy-in to support the sanctuary. Fishers will revert back to unsustainable practices if sustaining mechanisms and infrastructure will not be installed. The solution has improved coordination among enforcement system through logbook system, regular meeting, and conduct of regular monitoring and evaluation; improve voluntary compliance from fishers, and came up with a good management plan that is climate change proof.