Adapting to a Changing Environment

Santiri Foundation

Entry Overview

General Info
Tjatur Kukuh
Email :
Organization Address: 
Jalan Swaramahardika
Kompleks P3SA No. 6
Mataram, 83121
Population Impacted: 

5.435 km�

Major Occupations: 
Local resources the community depends on, and for what purpose: 
The people in Lombok rely on agriculture, marine and forestry resources to support their life
Local threats to resources: 
Local threats to those resources are climate change, disaster, and also big investors from outside of islands
Climate Hazards: 
rob, erosion, land sliding, abrasion, coral bleaching
Level of exposure to these hazards: 
Level of sensitivity: 
Level of adaptive capacity: 
Describe Your Solution: 

Socio Landscape Approach or socio geographical unit actually is the approach taken by indigenous peoples or local communities, namely holistic and integrative approach. Interdependence of human being to other human being, and human being and nature, are managed in a way that creates harmony and sustainability, including in dealing with natural disasters, weather and climate change. Modern lifestyle of human beings is causing these relationships not harmonious, even destructive. Challenges of the times and climate change which has occurred multidimensional crisis, including food, water and energy causes this approach needs to be developed and adapted to the present. But this should be done gradually, given the existing resource constraints, as well as consideration of the occurrence of shock / culture shock if the approach is forced. The approach aims to drive communities toward: ? Diversified or alternative livelihoods: diversification is done by utilizing available natural resources while maintaining sustainability of environmental services, namely diversification of fisheries: aquaculture fish / lobster, seaweed cage systems, swamps or estuary use for fish farming, crops processing, development of ecotourism and creative economy activities, revitalization of local weaving, bamboo lamination, non-timber forest products etc. ? Improved food security. Most of the efforts made to improve sustainable livelihoods which at the end improve food security, among others, the cultivation of fish / seaweed, fish processing. In addition, education and habituation back into the local food type is also performed; the revitalization of the food barn within which diversification of non-rice foods is promoted; ? Improved hazard risk management; increase public knowledge about how to deal with disasters that may occur in the future through training and workshops or field visits. Develop vulnerable villages to become villages which are prepared for disasters by developing plans on the physical modalities (roads, buildings, etc.) bio-modalities (plant and manage appropriate types of plant, etc.), social-modalities (increase knowledge, behavior changes, etc.) ? Improved use of water resources or other natural ecosystem services; develop a water resources management strategy by, among others, include developing village rules for managing the use of water at village level (especially for village with a water source) and/or develop inter-village regulations in an area. Development is done in a participatory approach where the authors of regulations are coming from the village concerned. Sanctions and rewards are given for the application of rules and regulations approved by the village. These regulations are included in the district policy sheet. Encourage development and implementation of local regulations (PERDA) on environmental services. ? Promotion of utilization of renewable energy and energy efficiency ? Waste Management and Treatment. ? Development of information systems

Ecological Costs: 
Unintended consequences, such as increased fishing outside no-take zone
Ecological Benefit: 
- Increased biodiversity and abundance of fish - Reduced dynamite or destructive fishing practices
Economic Indicators used to measure benefit: 

- Biomass measurements - Area of mangrove - Area of no-take zone

Community/Social Cost: 
- Volunteer time for planning and design - Conflict between those with fishing rights and those who don?t have them - Time needed for alternative occupation or fishery recovery
Community/Social Benefit: 
- Increased awareness and support for sustainable fisheries management - Increased organization of community groups
Community/Social Indicators used to measure benefit: 
- Number of community members attending meetings - Sources of income
Economic Cost: 

- Enforcement costs - Cost of community meetings (with amount) - Job training

Economic Benefit: 

- Additional income generated - Increased purchasing power

Ecological Indicators used to measure benefit: 

- Community reports - Household items survey

What were/are the challenges your community faced in implementing this solution?: 

The main challenge is how to invite the community to change - because these things are new to them. Conducting many activities in a participatory manner is a bit boring since these require a lot of time when they need time to work. Surely there should be compensation to replace their time. If we already have a plan, usually it is met with funding problems. Cooperation with other institutions and the government usually takes time and cannot immediately implement plans that have been developed. The main prerequisites are certainly ammunition and energy tochange mindset and behavior of the community. Existing challenges can cause a slow process and the results, which in turn will cause a decrease in community spirit and stamina, while the process of destruction due to climate change ever speeding

Describe the community-based process used to develop the solution including tools and processes used: 

In developing solution for climate change for the area and people of the archipelago, and at the same time contributing to the agenda of natural resource and spatial management towards archipelagic orientation, Santiri utilizes ?Socio-Landscape? Approach. In this approach, Santiri conducts intervention on programmatic aspect, institutional and knowledge management aspects. By programmatic, beside looking at sectors, Santiri also developed model of spatial approach in which issues of food, water, energy and income security can be safeguard without neglecting socio-cultural aspect as part of the ecosystem (ecology, economic, and sociology). Several models which had been developed using this spatial approach: North Lombok with District-Level approach (on-going) within which there are ECV (Eco Climate Village)-Coastal Village and ETV(Eco Techno Village)-Traditional Village, in Central Lombok with socio agro-forestry approach, and Timor with river basin approach, and still in initial stages, replications of ECV Sumba, Sumbawa and North Maluku (ECV). In developing the model, steps taken before and along the process is to conduct a social assessment and preparation. In this case the assessment that has been carried out, among others: scoping the need for capacity building in climate change adaptation at the level of provinces, districts and bases), for the assessment of climate change vulnerability and responsiveness using the methodology ICATCH (Indonesia Climate Adaptation Tools Coastal Habitat) in 50 Villages ( 35 The village has been completed and 15 are proceeding); mapping, needs assessment and ECV master plan development in 3 villages in North Lombok and 2 village in northern Maluku. The methodology used was participatory approach through focus group discussions involving representatives of fishing communities, or surrounding forest consisting from elements that represent the territory, women, fishermen / farmers, laborers and others. Other approach is Peer Group Discussion (PGD) in stages, i.e. among young leaders, each selected from the working areas. FGD and PGD are usually done in working areas which can also give space for other residents to get involved. As for Knowledge Management System, we systems and mechanisms that can be accessed by the public or foster stakeholder participation at different levels. We use combination of web, mailing, community radio, SMS Gateway-based tools. For active participation, we also foster community or village journalists. Important partners, in this whole process expected to take about 15 years, among others, are Samdhana, Ford, SEI, IMACS-USAID, JKPP, Samanta, local NGOs and CBOs (LMNLU, Gema Alam, One Vision, River basin Forum, LP2DPM), Government (Public Works Dept.), Local Government, Private (Local Water Utilities Company) and other stakeholders. Given what is being implemented is a long-term program, there is a need to develop synergistic and functional collaboration with flexible mechanism, where the 'Master Plan' is developed in a participatory manner. In this case, the support does not have to go through Santiri, but can be direct to local NGOs or organized-communities.

Climate hazard of concern: 
Coral bleaching and acidification
How does your solution reduce the exposure of and buffer/protect the ecosystem affected?: 

In the concept of ECV, where there are coral reef habitats and coral bleaching has occurred, communities perform fillings through grafting and replanting with different methodologies (trial-learning by doing) and using more resilient coral species to thermal and or toxins where coral bleaching occurs. In a more integrated, this concept also wants to restore the ecosystem or the ability to recover in the area where bleaching occurs. Along with that also develop policies that govern zoning and spatial planning, including areas concerning rehabilitation, conservation and selected utilization. Master plan is made and agreed jointly by the community and the local government, ecological design and technology efforts; Adapting village layout and design of houses with the conditions to reduce the possibility of disaster impacts. Higher house foundation, in order to facilitate community to save themselves (building not parallel to the shoreline), at the same time making bio-pores, planting plant with capability to protect from rob (mangrove), installing wave-breakers, protecting the beach with a variety of plants such as sun grass, Casuarina equisetifolia, breadfruit tree, hibiscus etc. In the area where landslides also occurs, we plant also protection plants and develop terracing. It is no less important also to build institutions and revitalization awik-awik (local rules); supported by Local Spatial Planning.

How does your solution reduce the sensitivity of the ecosystem affected?: 

Increase the natural resource resilience and the power of productivity of human resources, by improving the quality of environment services and by more replanting, coral reef recovery and spatial planninng; Encourage the community to have a diverse or additional livelihoods through diversification and/or livelihood that do not depend on vulnerable natural resources, such as eco-tourism and creative economy, crop processing (to make it more durable) etc.

How has your solution increased the capacity of the ecosystem to adapt to potential climate changes?: 

Natural resource resilience experiencing degradation, restored systematically through the master plan gradually implemented with plants or habitats that have resilience against extreme climate change, gradually then interwoven with indigenous plants that have been specially treated previously (MAS). For coastal and marine environment, same approach is done, in addition to the conservation of the area with good condition, implement interweaving, for example through transplantation of coral reefs, planting watershed, including downstream areas.

How has your solution increased the capacity of local communities to adapt to potential climate changes?: 

One of the goals of the utilization of participatory approaches, besides to ensure approach answers local needs, is also to enable the transfer of knowledge, knowhow and skills. In this case, indigenous communities, fishermen, farmers and community surrounding forest involved in participatory mapping, preparation of master plan of ECV and regional spatial development, climate change adaptation plan; also in using a variety of tools, such as ICATCH. In addition, of course, we also hosted variety of discussions, training and other learning, either through direct appointment or through community radio and SMS gateway (Knowledge Management).

Can this solution be replicated elsewhere?: 

Although not yet complete and optimally effective, these solutions have been replicated in some other places. ECV, for example, has been replicated from one village to three villages in North Lombok and 2 villages in North Maluku; regional approach is replicated in Sumba and Dompu; village regulation or model that has been developed of course undergo changes here and there adjusting to the existing conditions in the new location. Socio landscape approach that is integrated with institutional strengthening and governance of knowledge is a novel approach; Similarly for the other solutions developed as ECV and ETV and approaches using peer group discussion and action

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