An Overview Of Our Solution
- Population Impacted
- Continent: Asia
Project Management Unit, Room #333, Ban Bhaban, Agargaon, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh. Mobile No. 8801715007855
Dhaka - 1360
Local resources the community depends on, and for what purpose
Local threats to resources
Level of sensitivity
Level of adaptive capacity
Economic Indicators used to measure benefit
Household items survey
Community/Social Indicators used to measure benefit
Initial cost regarding excavation of ditch and building dyke of FFF model
Increasing diverse resource and income generation; Short- to mid- and long-time basis resource management offers economic saving; Lower environmental and economic risks of investment in FFF model
Ecological Indicators used to measure benefit
Amount of annual crops produced. Area of plantations. Nos. of man-made ecosystems
What were/are the challenges your community faced in implementing this solution?
As highly salt contaminated lands during preparation stages of FFF model, cultivating the dyke surface with agricultural crops was not favorable to community. People applied traditional knowledge through using organic fertilizer like dry cow dung to enrich soil nutrient and leach out salt water. Storm surges remains risks to standing resources of FFF model. Physical protection through raising heights of surrounding dykes is provided to reduce tidal surge risk. Climate resilient policies for different sectors (agriculture, fisheries, livestock and forestry) of coastal zone are required to continue successful FFF intervention. Bangladesh is yet to prepare harmonious land policy for coastal areas with respect to climate risk reduction and integrated resource management. Establishment of afforestation on newly accreted Char land is recognized by forest policy up to 20 years period without any proper indication and guideline of land use at maturity of the plantation. Lack of land use policies created institutional barriers to identify potential use of lands with appropriate knowledge and technology for FFF arrangement. With the support of the project, coastal land use policy is currently under review to delineate land ownership among public and private stakeholders considering and develop site specific land uses for afforestation, agriculture and aquaculture. For the first time in the world, climate resilient policy recommendations for “environment”, “forest”, “land use” and “coastal zone management” policies and framework for mainstreaming climate resilient policies in coastal zone management is underway.
Describe the community-based process used to develop the solution including tools and processes used
The “Community Based Adaptation to Climate Change through Coastal Afforestation in Bangladesh” project is being implemented in four exposed coastal upazilas of four coastal districts. The project sites meet the sea and bordering with the Bay of Bengal directly. The project prepared participatory and community-based adaptation plans for four project upazilas of 4 coastal districts (Barguna, Bhola, Noakhali, and Chittagong), encompassing the information on biophysical, socioeconomic and climate vulnerabilities of different communities. Local adaptation needs were assessed and currently available adaptation measures regarding coastal afforestation, existing livelihood options agriculture-based (crop/livestock), fisheries-based (river/sea), forestry-based (timber/non-timber), and local preparedness systems for extreme events were documented with the active participation of local communities. The project also conducted Participatory Rural Appraisals (PRA) at the community level in target areas to determine existing capacities and training needs for vulnerable communities on longer-term climatic and environmental changes. Vulnerability assessment in 4 project sites showed the following problematic focuses that requires appropriate and immediate adaptation interventions: A) The livelihoods of coastal communities are highly dependent on climate sensitive sectors like Agriculture, Forestry, Fisheries and Livestock while most of the projects are targeted to only one of these major sectors and ended with the progress of sector wise implementation. Such sector wise split type of intervention can reduce the vulnerability of communities for time being or hardly for one season of the year. This type of piece meal approach even is not sufficient to cope with their annual vulnerabilities and hence innovative integrated approach is required that will provide recurrent benefits to increase the resilience of communities to withstand against climate change impacts beyond their annual vulnerabilities. B) Coastal zone of Bangladesh covers 20% of the rice acreage of the country, while in most of the exposed coastal areas, rice is grown once in a year (during rainy season) with the use of local traditional variety due to higher level of salinity. The rest of the seasons, the lands remain fallow. Livelihoods in the exposed coastal areas are highly dependent on selling of labor. In the fishing season, most of the fishermen communities serve as labor in fishing boats. Even in the off season of fishing, they have to migrate due to scarcity of productive sectors to engage themselves as labor. Moreover, their income from fishing has already been reduced to half compared to the last decade due to the increased number of sea signals per years that restrict the fishing boat to go for fishing. C) Another important observation is that the communities are involved in different social afforestation programmes through long term benefit-sharing approach. The beneficiaries have to wait at least 10-12 years till the maturity of tree stands for getting benefits even from fast growing tree species. This type of community based intervention also does not bear fruit or provide any alternative cropping mechanism rather these group of beneficiaries are compounded with the complex set of problems due to cumulative climate change impacts during this period. D) The ecosystem of coastal mangrove forest is dominated by monoculture species particularly with Sonneratia apetala. It can tolerate high frequency of inundation and serves as only pioneer species, suitable for plantation in newly accreted lands. Being a pioneer species in ecological succession, it is strong light demanding species and cannot grow under the shade of other trees and usually forms pure stands. Throughout coastal areas, it does not regenerate at all. This type of monoculture is further aggravated due to climate change impacts. On the other hand, out of 4444 nos. seedlings/ha from initial planting, only 800 to 1000 nos. matured trees/ha survives at its maturity indicating 75% gaps in tree stands/ha. It means that there is big opening in between matured trees. This type of greenbelt structure allows maximum penetration of tidal & storm surges and wind velocity causing destruction to the adjacent communities and their assets. In order to enrich plant densities per unit area and sustain coastal vegetation and make the ecosystem climate resilient, what is urgently needed is to introduce other mangrove species to fill up these gaps of coastal forests. E) The understanding of climate change risks, impacts and potential adaptation measures is currently limited in government agencies as well as civil society in Bangladesh. Climate risks have not been incorporated into coastal planning frameworks at the national and local levels. This is partly because climate change concerns are relatively new, but also because of capacity gaps in accessing, understanding, and applying climate information in sectoral planning. Capacity building of govt. officials at national and local level is required to incorporate climatic risk reduction in their respective sectors and service delivery. F) Most of the coastal people are depending on single fishing activities with very limited skills and knowledge on integrated farming. It indicates that they require new information and capacity building for addressing climatic risks through alternative livelihood model. The following chronological processes and tools for the involvement of vulnerable coastal communities were used for the solution: * The project started its implementation since 2010. PRA in each project site enables to find out that most vulnerable group from each project site. Field survey was conducted throughout eastern central and western coastal belts to find out the gaps in the existing coastal ecosystem. * From the very beginning of the project, special government notifications were made for providing access of government lands to the landless people and marginalized groups of the local communities. The notification includes criteria for the selection of beneficiaries. It also includes specific leasing schedule indicating that the government land is being distributed to the communities for 10 years and based on their better performance it will be automatically renewed up to 20 years. * To involve them in decision making process, Community Awareness Training were conducted, formed Local Climate Clubs at grass root level and local Co-Management Committee (CMC) in each project site. * After the distribution of land ownership, local communities were involved in resource generation options for which all inputs in the first year were provided from the project and facilitated by the local Community Development Associates of the project with the support of all participating government departments. * During the period of project implementation, it has been observed that there exists relief culture in the disaster prone coastal areas of Bangladesh. Accordingly, another innovative management approach has been developed for the formation of beneficiary societies of the project in order to develop self-help options among beneficiaries which are now under implementation and beneficiary society has already been formed in one project site. Implementing partners and their roles in supporting the solution: The project is funded by the GEF with parallel contributions from UNDP, SDC, EKN and the government of Bangladesh. The lead executing agency is the Ministry of Environment and Forest. Other implementing partners are the Forest Department (FD), Bangladesh Forest Research Institute (BFRI), Department of Agricultural Extension (DAE), Department of Fisheries (DoF), Department of Livestock Services (DLS), Ministry of Land (MoL) and Bangladesh Water Development Board. Local government departments like DAE, FD, DoF, DLS and BFRI were involved as service provider in supporting the solution. Along with technical assistance programmes, these departments participated in demonstrating modern technologies through introducing high yielding salt tolerant varieties. Every beneficiary was also involved in skill development capacity building training programmes by respective departments. Local Co Management Committees (CMCs) were established as local adaptation platforms for decision-making in each project sites. Government notification was made for the formation of CMC in each project site headed by the UNO (Upazilla Nirbahi Officer or Head of Local Government). The CMC includes representatives of all implementing departments, elected local Union Parishad Chairman & 2 word members elected from adjacent forest villages, 2 women members and 2 civil society members from beneficiaries. This CMC serves as local executing council of the project. Besides, District Steering Committee (DSC) has been formed, headed by the DC (Deputy Commissioner of Head of District Government). The role of DSC is to supervise the activities of respective CMC. Since 2010 the project commences implementation which is ongoing. The Project Management Unit (PMU) fully embraces and works tirelessly to meet the following: • To systematically identify vulnerable groups of the society who can benefit, whose key resources are at risk and to what potential alternative measures can be implemented for their long term adaptation; • To develop partnership with diverse stakeholders in order to ensure successful implementation of adaptation interventions; • To implement site-suitable climate resilient practices that relate to the acceptance by the communities; • To develop current and future plans and strategies to increase the adaptive capacities of coastal communities; • To empower coastal communities through developing self-help options; • To find out ways for restoring, improving and protecting coastal biodiversity and habitats; • To raise awareness for sinking capacity of greenhouse gas through large scale plantings that ultimately save the coastal communities from anticipated climate change impacts.
Climate hazard of concern
How does your solution reduce the exposure of and buffer/protect the ecosystem affected?
The project has taken advantages of availability of new and moderate to highly accreted lands in project sites as well as community enthusiasm, and combines these opportunities to increase coverage of the greenbelt area with mangroves and non-mangroves to create a buffer zone. • Mangrove plantations have been established on 6,200 ha by engaging 130,200 man days in cash-for-work (CfW) programmes; • Non-mangrove dyke plantations (including the ditch and dyke arrangement of the FFF model) have been established on 50 ha and another 70 ha is underway, engaging 71,400 man days in CfW programmes, and involving 896 beneficiaries (400 have taken over their allotments; 496 have yet to be approved by the CMCs); • Non-mangrove mound plantations established on 322 ha, engaging 98,936 man days in CfW programmes and involving 554 coastal beneficiaries; • Non-mangrove strip plantations totaling 680 km have been completed with the involvement of 3,400 beneficiaries; • A 100 ha model demonstration plantation of ten mangrove species have been completed; it involves 143 beneficiaries organized into groups.
How has your solution increased the capacity of the ecosystem to adapt to potential climate changes?
• Mixed plantation contribute to fill in the gaps of the existing and partially mangrove patches and so response diversity of the species can easily sustain the habitat structure to cope with current and future cyclonic wind and storm surges. • Exposed coastal areas experience severe cyclone and tidal surges and hence, the government has made vegetative shelter belts throughout coastal areas with the use of a single species S. apetala in newly accreted lands due to its high tolerance capacity even under submerged condition for 3-4 days. This type of monoculture now encounters a number of problems which is further aggravated in response to climate change impacts. At its maturity, hardly 1,000 trees out of the planted 4,444 nos. seedlings are found to survive with a big opening in between the matured trees due to lack of regeneration of S. apetala in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. To enrich and sustain coastal vegetation, the CBACC-CF project introduced 10 commercially important mangrove species as under planting within almost 100 ha of S. apetala plantation. This effort will increase number of trees per unit area preventing climate related wind velocity and other weather events. The introduced species are Heritiera fomes, Excoecaria agllocha, Xylocarpus mekongensis, Cynometra ramiflora, Aegiceras corniculatum, Bruguiera sexangula, Phoenix paludosa, Nypa fruticans, Lumnitzera racemossa and Ceriops dacandra which were previously evaluated and selected by BFRI for differently inundated coastal habitats. Thus, the CBACC-CF project introduced new coastal forest guidelines/large scale practices through large scale model demonstration that will increase forest productivity and sustain biodiversity throughout coastal areas. • It is now increasingly recognized that well managed coastal ecosystems can help local communities adapt to current and future climate change hazards by proving a wide range of ecosystem services. This is one of the reasons why commercially important mangrove species have been introduced by the project. • Mangrove plantation has enhanced adaptive capacity of the protective ecosystem through contributing to stabilization of new Char lands and function of the ecosystem against cyclonic wind and storm surges. • Mangrove plantations provide physical protection, with some species are expected to trap sediments in their intricate root structure at such a high rate that can potentially reverse the effect of sea level rise or river erosion, through land reclamation and by bolstering the protective capacity of the coast against storm surges or cyclones. • Innovative ditch and dyke structure restores productive quality of lands for current and future uses against salt water and tidal inundation effects. The type of land use system solved fresh water increased freshwater options through seasonal rainwater harvesting and irrigation purposes. It supports quick establishment of multiple type of ecosystems including multicultural, multilevel (due to structural arrangements) ecosystems behind the coastal mangrove forests that will provide enormous opportunities for future learning.
How does your solution reduce the exposure of and buffer/protect the communities affected?
The project is working on a two-track approach – livelihood diversification through sustainable income generation from co-management of natural resources and increasing human security through increasing the natural protection mangroves provide vulnerable coastal communities. • Coastal afforestation programme of the project strengthened protective greenbelt to reduce exposure of adjacent communities to direct effects of climatic hazards. Mangrove forests served buffer zones between sea and main land for protecting the adjacent communities, settlements and properties. Afforestation in newly accreted Char lands extended protection coverage of the long coast line which is highly exposed and vulnerable project sites in southern region of Bangladesh. • Model plantation approach increases plant density (per hectare) within existing mangrove stands to reinforce the strength of green buffer for the adjacent communities against the divergences of frequency and intensity of storm surges and cyclonic winds; • Vertical ditch and dyke structure of the FFF model reduced exposure of agricultural lands or fresh water bodies to storm surges and flooding. The enclosed ditch and dyke created buffer boundary for protecting community resources out of effects of direct storm surges, floods as well as salt water infiltration. By now, the FFF model has protected agriculture, aquaculture and forestry based resource generation of many coastal households through their secured access to improved land use.
How does your solution reduce the sensitivity of the communities affected?
• About 30% of the coastal people are either landless or functionally incapable for land uses due to flooding and storm surges where 40-60% of the coastal people are subsistence users and depending on seasonal fishing in the sea and rivers, and traditional agriculture. Innovative FFF model of the project reduced sensitivity of involved communities to storm surges and flooding that affected major income sources from agriculture and fish cultivation in coastal areas. Through the model these groups reduced their sensitivity of single occupation to the identified climatic risks. Involved communities have been capable to generate short to mid- and long-term resource through the model which is securing household foods and additional income to cope with stress periods. • It was the beyond communities imagination that the FFF model would open up new horizon of livelihood diversification. The increased resource generation has convinced coastal communities that the innovative model is using land properly, is highly adaptive to local environment and is contributing to the development of sustainable coastal communities through increasing their adaptive capacity. They now believe that their capacity will be increased to such a level within two years that they would be able to rehabilitate this model without any external help in case of any serious weather events. • By introducing salt tolerant rice technology the project is reducing salinity effects in traditional agriculture associated with storms surges and flooding events. The significant benefit of the rice farming technique was maximizing land uses while taking account of climatic risks in coastal areas. Since the technology demonstration, coastal farmers have increased use of seasonal fallow lands through shifting single to double cropping system and reduced household food deficits.
How has your solution increased the capacity of local communities to adapt to potential climate changes?
• Coastal community has been at the core of all programmatic interventions of the initiative since its inception. Each beneficiary remains involved in livelihood activities due to gradual income generation and long-term land ownership opportunity in the given arrangement (Particularly in FFF arrangements). • The project is arranging access to land ownership and enhanced skills of 896 coastal landless people for innovative FFF practices to improve their adaptive capacity. • Landless and marginalized groups have increased their income more than 330% compared to their baseline income. As a result the project strengthened their coping ability to adapt to potential climate change. • Implementing agency-wise training measures up-skilled the capacity of 13,930 households to cope with different scenarios of climate change impacts. • The FFF model promotes community based approach for ensuring local decision making process, shared learning to reduce climatic risks and claiming services from govt. departments. Cross-learning opportunity among the beneficiaries with external institutions has been observed important for facilitating the adaptation practices. The best farmers’ experiences motivated other participants and local community to actively engage themselves for resource generation in the new adaptation practices. • Due to manifold use of the innovative FFF, involved coastal families have received an increasing household food production and maximum economic return. The income opportunity has reflected community’s willingness to invest their time for at least a seasonal crop/fish throughout a year. • The CMC platform enhance collaboration among implementing govt. departments about their monitoring roles to identify the risks of livelihood interventions of the project, share in local committee and find quick solutions and improving technical support for beneficiaries. • Capacity building training to govt. officials on climatic risks and hazards identified key roles and services of institutions required for addressing the current and future impacts of storm surges and flooding and associated effects of sea level rise for coastal communities.
Can this solution be replicated elsewhere?
• Two projects/programmes (with additional funding from Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation as well as from the Govt. of the Netherlands) have been activated and successful adaptation measures incorporated for up-scaling within exposed coastal areas of Bangladesh. During exposure visits within the district and other districts, local govt. officials have shown their interests to cover other coastal belts of the country with this solution, disseminate information on climate resilient advanced livelihood varieties in respective areas and incorporate the current actions within national policies. The solution can also be replicated in other countries having similar type of coastal topography. • Another LDCF II project is now in the project formulation stage and intended to replicate this solution. The following features make the solution innovative: Ø The CBACC-CF project is the first project in Bangladesh where landless people and marginalized groups of society are accessing government lands through benefit sharing model. Land rights in the model empowered coastal communities to participate in local decision making processes, claim relevant services from government departments and secured their natural and economic capital as one of the important options for their resilience in climate change affected coastal areas. Ø With the application of innovative land use technology, the project converted fallow coastal lands into multiple resource regime for adapting to current and future climatic risks. Ø A bundle of adaptation interventions applied through integrating agriculture, fisheries, forestry and livestock management created provision for recurrent resource and income generation practices that ensures sustainability of adaptation interventions. Ø Harvesting of rain water in ditch system secured fresh water sources for irrigation and maximizing fish cultivation throughout the year. It will reduce the migration of vulnerable fishermen during off fishing season. Ø Accommodation of 8 families per hectare in FFF model is a significant approach for a land scarce country like Bangladesh. Ø As of today, the project enhanced resilience of vulnerable 20,027 households through livelihood diversifications in different adaptation and training measures and developed their skills in major livelihood sectors and enable them to actively utilize climate resilient adaptation measures. Ø Introducing salt tolerant livelihoods and high yielding varieties has changed the single cropping pattern of previously fallow paddy lands of vulnerable coastal areas into double cropping pattern. Ø The project enhanced resilience of the protective coastal ecosystem through establishing 6300 ha mangrove plantation, 444 ha non-mangrove and 680 km strip plantation within 3 years. This project is helping to secure its sustainability through anchoring both adaptation and mitigation measures. Recently, mangroves in the tropics are considered as the most carbon rich forests among all major forest domains of the world. The carbon sink capacity of mangroves is four times higher than non-mangrove species. With a total of 6300 ha of mangrove afforestation, the project made mitigation arrangements to absorb more than 630,000 tons of carbon annually. With such continued progress of afforestation, the per capita carbon foot print could be reduced to zero level through enhancing carbon sink capacity by mangroves. Ø Apart from stabilizing accreted char lands, the model demonstration with the introduction of 10 new species enriches habitat quality, biodiversity with valuable flora and fauna and most importantly the project in this regard addresses the climate change issues regarding storm resistance benefits for ecosystem sustainability of the fragile coastal areas during future climatic threats. Ø For the first time in Bangladesh, the project adopted Coastal Co Management Committee headed by local govt. for effective implementation of adaptation interventions in 4 coastal districts. Ø Attempt has been made for developing climate resilient policy recommendations of “environment”, “forest”, “land use” and “coastal zone management” policies and framework for mainstreaming climate resilient policies in coastal zone management is underway; Ø To date, the project has developed different knowledge tools and created enormous opportunities of learning for the globe about different types of man-made ecosystems in climate change adaptation and mitigation realm. Web link to related documents of CBACC-Coastal Afforestation Project 1. YouTube video link http://youtu.be/65NwvPL3Wn8 2. Project Knowledge Product: ‘Climate Change Adaptation Actions in Bangladesh’ http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-4-431-54249-0_15 http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-4-431-54249-0_14 3. Star Weekend Magazine: Rising from Barren Lands http://www.undp-alm.org/sites/default/files/downloads/star_weekend_magazine____.pdf 4. Regional Climate Change Adaptation Workshop, Thailand-2012; http://www.asiapacificadapt.net/adaptationforum2012/sites/default/files/Paramesh%20Nandy_BANGKOK-Adapt-Forum-2011%20%5BCompatibility%20Mode%5D.pdf 5. Disseminated through ALM WWW.adaptationlearning.net/country-profiles/bd 6. Project website www.cbacc-coastalaffor.org.bd 7. Adaptation Practitioner Days, Side Event, organized by the GEF in collaboration with IIED, JICA, IDRC and CDKN, held at COP 18, Doha, Online at http://www.iisd.ca/climate/cop18/dcapd/ (Volume 99, Number 9, Wednesday, 5 December 2012) 8. Adaptation to transformation of coastal ecosystem in changing climate: Theory to practical experience https://www5.shocklogic.com/scripts/JMEvent/abstracts/FCC-1333ED-2391096-1-Full%20Paper.pdf